Posts filed under ‘seminar’
Somalia’s Puntland State: What Next?
Date: Friday 7 February 2014
Venue: BIEA Seminar Room, Laikipia Road, Kileleshwa
Time: 10am – 12pm
Entry: RSVP here
On 8 January 2014 the parliament of Puntland elected its fourth president since the semi-autonomous state of Somalia was created in 1998. In a closely contested election run-off, Abdiweli Mohamed Ali Gaas, a former Prime Minister of Somalia, beat incumbent President Abdirahman Sheikh Mohamed Farole by a one-vote margin.
The transition of power was peaceful, but the new president and his cabinet have to contend with a number of pressing challenges. These include competing clan interests, relations with the Federal Government of Somalia and with the secessionist state of Somaliland, as well as security, humanitarian and development issues. At this meeting of the Nairobi Forum, speakers will share their insights on Puntland’s future.
Confirmed speakers include Mohamed Jama Waldo of the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HD Centre), Dr Cedric Barnes of the International Crisis Group (ICG), Adam Jama Shirwa of the International Development Law Organisation (IDLO) and Safiya Abdullahi Yusuf of the Puntland Diaspora Forum.
The BIEA in Collaboration with The National Museums Of Kenya Joint Seminar: Digital Kitambo—Taking the Past into the Future at the National Museum with Dr. David K. Wright and Kristina Dziedzic Wright.
Chair: Dr. Edward Pollard, British Institute in Eastern Africa
Date: Thursday, 30 January 2014
Time: 02.00 pm
Venue: The National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Lake Turkana has long been recognized as a critical incubator of human cultural evolution. Although much attention has justifiably been placed on researching the nature of our early hominin ancestors, the region also hosts a rich record of fishing and early cattle herding cultures as well. Due to the long and storied traditions of archaeological research near Lake Turkana, a rich collection has been accumulated in the Nairobi National Museum. However, legacy archives need to be digitally curated and integrated into computer databases as the pace of archaeological research in Kenya accelerates. The “Digital Kitambo” project has begun developing an integrated archaeological database using early food producers of northern Kenya to develop the template for future digitization efforts within the museum. The project involves conversion of analogue collections into a relational database, photographing archaeological artifacts and creating 3-dimensional scans of selected artifacts. The Nairobi National Museum hosts one of the deepest records of the human past in the world, but will lead the way into the future in access and usability of collections databases.
Dr. David K. Wright
David K. Wright is Assistant Professor of African Archaeology in the Department of Archaeology and Art History at Seoul National University in South Korea. Dr. Wright is a geoarchaeologist with specialties in human-environment interactions, sedimentology, evolutionary archaeology and prehistoric African cultures. He has conducted research in eastern Africa and the American Midwest, Plains, and Southwest. He is co-PI on the Malawi Early and Middle Stone Age Project (MEMSAP) studying the behavioral transitions in hominids and early modern humans in northern Malawi. Dr. Wright also conducts research near Lake Turkana, Kenya and in the Mandera Mountains, Cameroon on human adaptations to Holocene environmental change and is the lead PI on a project in the middle Gila River Valley, Arizona called “The Archaeology of Dust.”
Kristina Dziedzic Wright
Kristina Dziedzic Wright teaches art history and writing at Seoul National University in South Korea, and works as a freelance curator. She is the author of Art, Culture, and Tourism on an Indian Ocean Island: An Ethnographic Study of Jua Kali Artists in Lamu, Kenya (2009) and recently co-curated the exhibit Sanaa ya Makaratasi (African Paper Art): Process, Substance and Environment at the Nairobi National Museum. Her academic research ranges from informal sector art and cultural commoditization in Africa to media art and the international biennale phenomenon. Over the last ten years, she has participated in a number of archival and digitization projects for the University of Illinois at Chicago, the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum and the Elgin Cultural Arts Commission in Illinois, USA
For more information please contact email@example.com or call +254 20 815 5186
Embers Of Empire: Towards A World History Of End Of Britain
Date: Friday, 6 December 2013
Venue: British Institute in Eastern Africa, Laikipia Road, Kileleshwa
Time: 10.30 am
Entry; prior Reservation
Since the 1970s, writers, historians and journalists have reflected widely on the impending “Break-up of Britain“, a theme that has acquired new momentum in the light of the 2014 Scottish independence referendum. Equally, there has been a tendency to link the crisis of Britishness with the decolonization of the British Empire, as though these two processes were somehow intrinsically linked. But rarely, if ever, is this link established in any coherent or convincing way. These papers offers new perspectives on an old problem by looking at Britishness as the world’s first global civic idea, which ran into increasing difficulties after WWII as the credibility of its transnational reach was increasingly called into question by the pressures for global decolonization. By studying the fate of British civic culture around the world, from Africa to Australasia, the Caribbean, South Asia and Canada since the 1950s, we can gain a new purchase on the problems of national cohesion and civic purpose that have erupted periodically in Britain and elsewhere since that time.
This seminar focuses on two talks by Prof. Stuart Ward and Christian Damm Pedersen, both historians from Copenhagen University, Denmark. Both speakers are part of a collaborative research project at Copenhagen University on ‘Embers of empire: The receding frontiers of post-imperial Britain’, funded by the Velux Foundation.
For more information on this project please visit: embersofempire.ku.dk
Seminar by: Professor Stuart Ward & Christian Damm Pedersen, University of Copenhagen
Chair: Professor Ambreena Manji, British Institute in Eastern Africa
What is cooking in the Technology and Social Change sectors?
TechChange and Amani Institute are excited to co-host a happy hour to welcome TechChange founder and President Nick Martin to Nairobi where he will be teaching a short course on Technology and Social Change as part of the Amani Social Innovation Management curriculum. Since this is a small world, we are curious to see how many degrees of separation are between our networks and how we can continue weaving a tapestry of change!
Hope you can join us on Wednesday Sept 11th at 7 – 9 pm
Date: May 18, 2013
Venue: NaiLab, Bishop Magua Building 4th Floor
Location: opposite Uchumi Ngong Road
Entry: Kshs 500 (inclusive of reading material)
The all day workshop will be facilitated at NaiLab (Bishop Magua Bldg) by IP Checkin, Centre for Intellectual Property and Information Technology Law
- CiPIT and Kenya Copyright Board
This workshop will cover more than Copyright, Infringement, Protecting your IP, Agreements, Rights and the different ways you can make a living off your Intellectual Property.
with the proud support of Creatives Garage, BAKE, POWO, Craft Afrika, PAWA254 and Arterial Network.
The Afrikan Hip Hop Caravan connects artists and cultural educators in five cities: premièring in Cape Town in February, it paved its way through Johannesburg and Harare, will enter Tunis in March and finally reach Nairobi in April 2013.
Hip Hop music has been an important tool for youth to express themselves. Through symposia, the caravan tries to explore the contribution of Hip Hop to community struggles as the basis of a broader struggle for self-emancipation. Moreover, performances act as organic link between the cultural activists and the people who are engaged in daily social struggles.
The performing artists in Nairobi are: Ukoo Flani, Mau Mau, Lness, Ran-D and Vuli Vuli of Makaburi.
Contributors of the Symposium include: Dr. Aggrey Nganyi Wetaba and Dr. Priscilla Nyawira Gitonga, a lecturer at the department of Music and Dance at Kenyatta University. Her doctoral studies set out to explore the contribution of Hip Hop music to the construction of identity of female late adolescents in South Africa.
For more information visit Kenya Copyright Board Facebook page
Lecture to be opened by Dr Ambreena Manji, Director of the BIEA
Seminar: Collaborative Research on Enslavement for Forced Marriage in War-5 Country Study, Dec. 3 2012 @ BIEA
Presentation by Annie Bunting;
Annie Bunting is an Associate Professor in the Law & Society program at York University in Toronto, teaching in the areas of social justice and human rights. Professor Bunting is a graduate of York, having studied law at Osgoode Hall Law School (1988). She received her LL.M. from the London School of Economics and Political Science (1991) and her S.J.D. from the Faculty of Law, University of Toronto (1999).
Professor Bunting is currently directing a SSHRC-funded international research partnership on forced marriage in conflict situations with historians of slavery and women’s human rights scholars (2010-14). She has published articles in Social and Legal Studies, Journal of Law and Society, Canadian Journal of Women & the Law, and chapters in various book collections. She is on the Editorial Board of Law & Social Inquiry and the Muslim World Journal of Human Rights.
This event will take place on Monday 3rd December 2012 at 10.30AM at The British Institute in Eastern Africa, Laikipia Road, Kileleshwa, NAIROBI. Kindly RSVP by sending an email to firstname.lastname@example.org
The creativez are hosting the first ever, virtual continental collaborative Afrika Eye Film Festival discussion this Friday evening at iHub with our friends African Interactive in Bristol -UK all on Film and Digital Media The theme is The Moving Image
Other than discuss how Digital can expand the audience for the African moving image we will also explore new forms of film production, funding, distribution models and opportunities on collaborative projects between Kenyan and British film makers. All this will happen in a Unique format-depending on where you are on today we -the audience will get to interact with both panels in Bristol and in Nairobi’s iHub via an intergrated weblink
Panel: Nairobi [5-7pm]
Producer, Director- Bob Nyanja
Producer Director – Wanuri Kahiu
Producer, Director, Writer and Film Legend – John. E. Maina
Moderated by Jenny Muigai aka @skinnyfilmmaker
Panel :- Bristol 2-4pm
Writer, Producer – Andrew Mugoya
Producer, Director – Simon Bright
For more info on the event and bios of the panelist click here
The event is free but space is limited so kindly reserve your place by RSVP to this email: email@example.com
Annual Seminar of Observatory of the Great Lakes in Africa, Nov. 29 2012 @ the Institut Catholique de Paris
IFRA is pleased to invite you to the annual seminar of the Observatory of the Great Lakes in Africa to be held at the Institut Catholique de Paris Thursday, November 29, 2012.
The presentations and discussions will be held in French and English. The seminar will be organized along three axes:
1. The evolution of political regimes in the Great Lakes
2. Challenges of regional integration
3. The current crises in the Great Lakes
The full program is available on the IFRA website
Date: November 1, 2012
Venue: Growth Hub, Kilimani
Time: 9 am-noon
There is a deeply entrenched notion that as a craft maker, you cannot make a decent living (remember the notorious question- is this all you do for a living?). And yet it isn’t necessarily true and we will prove it to you.
Join us for our 4th Jumpstart Thursday as we bust the myth of the “starving artist”. We will be talking about how to “Make Good Money from Your Craft”. Our Guest speaker, Zohra Baraka has been in the handicrafts business for over 20 years, has a turnover of over USD150, 000 PA (and that’s when sales are very low), is constantly showcasing at international trade shows and has developed a product that can only be described as A1.
She will be joined by Joan Karanja, former founding member of The Cooperation of Fair trade In Africa (COFTA) and Jacinta Kioko-Mwaura of Niro Collection.
AND the best part is, to allow as many of you to attend this business changing event, we are offering you an early Christmas Offer- buy 2 tickets for the price of one (1000Kshs).
After scientific studies and two years of political sciences, Riccardo attended a three year masters program in professional photography in Rome. In 2002, while still studying for the FAO program, Riccardo came to Africa for two weeks in Ethiopia. Since then he has worked as a freelancer in South Africa – covering the Landless People Struggle, in Rwanda and Congo, covering the withdrawal of Rwandan troops and Gacaca process, Algeria, reporting the conditions of the Casbah in Algiers and daily life in Sahara desert.
In 2003 he started working as a Freelancer for Associated Press as a correspondent from the Great Lakes region based I Kigali but covered Congo, Burundi, Uganda and Kenya. He has worked on assignments for UNICEF, WFP, WHO Global Fund, UNHCR and his work has been published by New York Times, Times Magazine, The Times, The Guardian, Liberation, Der Spiegel, Le Monde, The Washington Post and many others.
He has done commercial work for Hotel Milles Collines – Kigali, The Memling – Congo, The Volcanoes Safari Lodge – Rwanda and Uganda, Golden Tulip – Accra & Kumasi and in Campanile Hotels and Tulip Inn in Spain and Italy.
To sample some of his work, be sure to check out his web portfolio: http://www.riccardogangale.com/
Lecture: For a new higher education initiative in cooperation and development in Kenya, Oct. 17 2012 @ Italian Institute of Culture
For a new higher education initiative in cooperation and development in Kenya
Lecture by Prof. Nelson Wawire, Dean of the School of Economics – Kenyatta University
The University of Pavia through the CDN (Cooperation and Development Network) is establishing a new Master Program in Nairobi in partnership with the Kenyatta University, CISP (Comitato Internazionale per lo Sviluppo dei Popoli), UNDP (United Nation Development Program) and the Tangaza College.
The Master Program in Economics (Cooperation and Human Development) aims at training future professionals in the field of development cooperation, with a specific focus on human development. The Program has its own specificity in trying to meet the needs of local geographical and socio-political context, tackling and deepening understanding on the main issue of concern in the field of cooperation and development.
The objective of CDN and its partners is to establish international network and partnerships which can offer post-graduate programs for highly qualified practitioners who will play a key role in their societies: in this perspective the CDN has already established since 1997 the Master in Cooperation and Development (CD) in Pavia (Italy), since 2003 the Escuela Latinoamericana de Cooperation y Desarollo (ELACID) in Cartagena des Indias (Colombia) and since 2005 the Master in Cooperation and Development (MICAD) in Bethlehem (Palestine).
The choice of Nairobi for the establishment of a new Master in Economics (Cooperation and Human Development) is linked to its crucial role in current Sub-Saharan scenario as a centre for “experiments” in terms of social, economic and political dynamics and as a mirror of what is happening in many other countries in Africa.
when: October 17 2012 at 7:00 pm
where: Italian Institute of Culture – Michelangelo Hall – Grenadier Tower – 6th floor Woodvale Close n. 1 – Westlands (Opposite Jacaranda Hotel)
Join 5 creatives this month at Creatives garage Portfolio Review at @Pawa254 from 4.30pm on 21 September 2012. We have an amazing lineup for you this month. Come check out Kiplagat Leting an amazing Chef in modern cuisine, Zawadi Nyongó a Yoga master in her own rights, Jozie an architect by day and a bass guitarist by night, the smooth sultry voiced Andrew Wambua, Raya a great Poet and of course the MC for the night, @Muthoni Gathecha
Georgina is based in Kenya and is a Kenyan national by birth. She is a young, dynamic, self-taught photographer who is passionate about her work and subject matter reflected in her strong analytical style. Georgina focuses on issues spanning the range of poverty, health, gender covered by NGOs, in particular those connected to the environment and politics. She also does commercial photography such as interiors and product promotions.
Some of her Published work and Clients include: World Bank, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Vestergaard Frandsen, New York Times, Financial Times, BBC, CNN, Reuters, United Nations – UNEP and IFAD, Unicef, McClatchy Newspapers NYC, Africa Geographic, Brand Magazine South Africa, and many others.
To see some of her work, check out her website:http://georginagoodwin.com/ and blog http://blog.georginagoodwin.com/
The salon will be at PAWA254 Hub and will begin at 4:30PM and run till 7:00PM.
Entry is Free
For more information visit the event Facebook page
Discussions on police reforms have been part of the public, official and academic discourses on democratization and change in Kenya for over a decade. Going back to the 1990s, the conduct of the police force has been the subject of numerous policy and academic reviews. Over the years, new actors such as private security agencies have emerged, new subjects of policing have also emerged and ideas on policing of these subjects have also evolved. However, these important changes in policing in Kenya have not received sufficient scholarly attention, leaving practitioners and researchers alike with limited optics with which to view the process of police reforms and security sector reform in general.
The one day workshop will bring together leading researchers on policing and security to share their ongoing research and to take stock of the key theoretical developments in the policing of contemporary Kenya.
The workshop is jointly convened by Mutuma Ruteere – The Centre for Human Rights and Policy Studies, Nairobi and Ambreena Manji – The British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi
Date: July 20, 2012
Venue: IFRA/BIEA conference room
Time: 10am – 1pm
To attend, kindly RSVP to firstname.lastname@example.org
Chair: Prof. Bob Wishitemi, D.V.C. Moi University
Speakers: Prof. Jean Rieucau*, Université Lyon 2 (France) and Dr. Damiannah Kieti, Moi University
This are presentations by PhD candidates followed by English debate
* His presentation will be in French, supported by a powerpoint presentation in English, the debate will be in english
Domestic tourism is a growing industry in Kenya (30% of the yearly touristic national takings) and constitutes already the main frequentation of some of the National Parks (53% of the visitors in Nakuru). For Kenyan authorities, domestic tourism seems to be useful as it may facilitate ethnical understanding and develop national pride and cohesion. In the process of selection of national monuments, the National Museums of Kenya have tried to promote the ethno-cultural diversity of the country. This new touristic development strategy of Kenyan institutions questions strongly the social sciences in relation to free time, leisure and touristic mobility of the Sub-Saharan populations.
For full information: http://us5.campaign-archive1.com/?u=15ef751e46901aabe24384368&id=c913d2015f
Even after disbanding itself in 2010, the proscribed Mungiki group seemingly remains an important factor in Kenyan society and politics. With regular appearances in the media, with the ICC trials going ahead and the Kenyan elections close on the horizon, this half-day workshop interrogates the role which the Mungiki plays in contemporary Kenya. Building on earlier and on-going research, the workshop assembles prominent Kenyan and international researchers who work on various aspects of the Mungiki.
The workshop is jointly convened by
The British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi
Mutuma Rutere (The Centre for Human Rights and Policy Studies, Nairobi) and
André Sonnichsen (The Centre of African Studies, University of Copenhagen)
* Cartoon by Gado
Dates: July 11-12, 2012
Venue: the British Institute in Eastern Africa
RSVP by contacting Dr Emma Hunter, email@example.com [Limited places available]
Download the programme herekenya_conf_2012b
Seminar/ Politics as Culture in Eastern Africa: Nation-Building, Neo-Liberalism and Moral Rhetoric, Jun. 14 2012 @ BIEA
Date: Thursday 14, June 2012
Venue: British Institute in Eastern Africa (BIEA), Laikipia Road, Kileleshwa
Time: 10.00am – 12.00pm
Politics as Culture in Eastern Africa: Nation-Building, Neo-Liberalism and Moral Rhetoric
This workshop brings together recent studies of the cultural and rhetorical dimensions of contemporary political change in Eastern Africa. The constitution of national identity has long been studied as an inherently cultural exercise. National affiliation is sustained by a range of cultural practices in which citizens actively participate.
While critical studies have concentrated on the developmental state of the post-independence period, less attention has been directed to more recent neo-liberal state formations which have emerged in Africa under pressure from donors and the international financial institutions.
The workshop seeks to explore the dimensions of this new moral culture in the politics of East Africa. It will consider in particular the potential for contest and subversion of the dominant neo-liberal common sense, as well as earlier cultural forms and moral exemplars which are still influential in East African politics.
1. Writing ‘Project Kenya’: Public Memory and Popular Histories in Parselelo Kantai’s Writing Grace Musila (University of Stellenbosch)
2. Satire and the Politics of Corruption in Kenya John Harrington and Ambreena Manji (BIEA)
3. Remoralizing Politics in Tanzania: Julius Nyerere as a National Icon Marie-Aude Fouéré (IFRA)
The seminar is free. To RSVP please email – firstname.lastname@example.org Or call 0724 576600 / 0735 260004
Fantastic line-up for this month’s POWO meetup. Do not miss it!
POWO (Poets and Writers Online) June 2012 Meetup
Saturday 16th June, 2012, 10.30am – 1.30pm
@PAWA254 – 2nd Floor, Africa Alliance of YMCAs Building
State House Crescent, off State House Road
A Panel Discussion: Art & Protest
Boniface Mwangi – Photographer, Activist
Room Thinker – Blogger
Okoiti Omtata – Writer, Activist
Maddo – Cartoonist – The Standard Group
Muki Garang – Hip Hop Artist, Poet, Activist
sign up and more info: http://powojune2012.eventbrite.com/
Professional photographer, Jerry Riley will be giving the Master talk.
Jerry Riley is a Canadian freelance photographer based in Nairobi, Kenya and has worked in Asia, Africa, South America and Europe. In North America he has worked extensively in the Canadian Arctic, exploring the interaction of photography with other art forms in the Inuit and art communities of Cape Dorset.
His work includes fine art photography, landscape, portraiture, urban and architectural/built environment photography, photo-montage and photo-collage. While in East Africa, he has contributed to Adam, TN, the Nation Media Group, The Africa Report, Farafina (Nigeria), Kwani, Storymoja, Wajibu and Awaaz.
Current corporate clients include AMREF, IRIN and other Nairobi-based international organizations. He travels whenever possible, and is currently director of the GenerationKenya project which profiles post-1963 Kenyans of achievement.
He regularly exhibits in North America and Europe and recently celebrated the launch of the first East African exhibition of his fine art photography in Nairobi.
For more info: Facebook event page
The BIEA invites you to their May 2012 seminar titled ‘Internationalisation and Higher Education – Perspectives and Challenges’. The presentation is scheduled for 29 Tuesday, May 2012 at 11.00am to 12.00pm.
The presentation will be given by Professor Nick Foskett, the Vice Chancellor of Keele University, UK. Prior to his appointment at Keele, Professor Foskett had been Dean of the Faculty of Law, Arts and Social Sciences at the University of Southampton.
Professor Nick Foskett academic specialism lies in educational leadership and management, with a particular focus on the interaction of policy and practice. His main research contributions have been in the fields of education markets, student choice, the management of institutional partnerships, and processes of internationalisation, particularly in the 14-19 sector and in universities. He has a long standing interest in curriculum design and development in 14-19 and university sectors and in all of these fields, has provided consultancy to institutions and governments both in the UK and internationally.
Professor Foskett was until recently, the joint editor of the Commonwealth’s journal, International Studies in Educational Administration.
The seminar will be chaired by Dr Ambreena Manji, the Director of the British Institute in Eastern Africa.
Kindly RSVP if you plan on attending by sending an email to email@example.com
Download programme Tuesday 29 May 2012 Seminar
Conference: A new entrepreneurship as a bridge between Italy and Kenya, Apr. 26 2012 @ Italian Institute of Culture
The Istituto Italiano di Cultura requests the pleasure of your company at the conference in English
A new entrepreneurship as a bridge between Italy and Kenya
Speaker: Prof. Mario Molteni (Full Professor of Business Administration and Corporate Strategy at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart – Milan)
Date: April 26, 2012
Venue: the Italian Institute of Culture
About Mario Molteni
Mario Molteni is Full Professor of Business Administration and Corporate Strategy at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan.
He is Founder and Director of ALTIS (Postgraduate School Business & Society) at the same university, an international research and education center for CSR and entrepreneurship. Mario was born and resides in Italy. He is the author of numerous books and scientific articles on Corporate strategy, Entrepreneurship, Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Entrepreneurship.
For more info: IIC website
Topic: Fostering Entrepreneurship -the role of enterprise in economic development
Facilitator: Prof. Richard Harrison (Professor of Entrepreneurship & Management)
The National Museum of Kenya is holding a consultative workshop on Climate change and Heritage. This workshop will be held on the March 21, 2012.
For further information, kindly contact Dr. Ali Adan, Team Leader, NMK Environment, Climate Change and Heritage Policy Group through + 254722961233; Email; firstname.lastname@example.org.
NB: Participation is strictly by invitation only.
For more information and project concept check their website
Seminar: Plots for Sale-The Dynamics of Land Transformation in Periurban Kenya, Mar. 21 2012 @ BIEA /IFRA
Date: March 21, 2012
Venue: BIEA Seminar Room – Laikipia Road, Kileleshwa
Time: 1.30 – 3.30pm
Entry: RSVP email@example.com
Presenter: Dr. Patrick Mbataru, Department of Agribusiness Management and Trade, Kenyatta University
This will be followed by a debate on: The Gains and Challenges on Land Reforms in Kenya with Mr. Ibrahim Mwathane (Director of Land Development and Governance Institute)
This discussion will help open latitude for updating knowledge on key achievements and associated challenges to date to the reform.
Chair: Dr. Ambreena Manji, BIEA Director and Prof. Christian Thibon, IFRA Director
Land subdivision is one of the processes whose aim is to release land to the market. It allows development of infrastructure in an area. Formal processing of land subdivision also act as a deterrent to emerging informal land markets which lead to urban sprawls and blights. But the process is informed by many factors, resulting to either efficient or dysfunctional land markets.
The land market in Nairobi is distorted. The accelerated subdivision of hitherto prime agricultural land in a time of key debate on land and in the wake of a new constitution calling for land reforms calls us to interrogate the dynamics of land mutation around the country.